Countries that have disappeared completely in 20th century
Countries that have disappeared completely in 20th century are listed below :-
1. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (Soviet Union), 1922-1991
The names of the Soviet Union are as follows in several languages of its 15 constituent republics:
- Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик; Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
- Ukranian: Союз Радянських Соціалістичних Республік; Soyuz Radyans’kykh Socialistychnykh Respublik
- Belarusian: Саюз Савецкіх Сацыялістычных Рэспублік; Sayuz Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika
- Uzbek: Совет Социалистик Республикалари Иттифоқи; Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikalari Ittifoqi
- Kazakh: Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы; Keñestik Socïalïstik Respwblïkalar Odağı
- Georgian: სხუნუეფიშ სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკეფიშ რსხუ; skhunuepish sotsialist’uri resp’ublik’epish rskhu
- Azerbaijani: Совет Сосиалист Республикалары Иттифагы; Sovet Sosialist Respublikaları İttifaqı
- Lithuanian: Tarybų Socialistinių Respublikų Sąjunga
- Moldovan: Униуня Републичилор советиче Сочиалисте; Uniunea Republicilor Sovietice Socialiste
- Latvian: Padomju Sociālistisko Republiku Savienība
- Kyrgyz: Советтик Социалисттик Республикалaр Союзу; Sovettik Socialisttik Respublikalar Soyuzu
- Tajik: Иттиҳоди Ҷумҳуриҳои Шӯравии Сосиалистӣ; Ittihodi Chumhurihoi Shūravii Sosialistī
- Armenian: Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետությունների Միություն; Xorhrdayin Soc̕ialistakan Hanrapetowt̕yownneri Miowt̕yown
- Turkmen: Совет Социалистик Республикалары Союзы; Sowet Sosialistik Respublikalary Soýuzy
- Estonian: Nõukogude Sotsialistlike Vabariikide Liit
In some cases, due to the length of its name, the state was referred to as the “Soviet Union” or the “USSR” especially when used in the Western media. It was erroneously called “Russia” as well in some encyclopedic sources.
2. Sikkim , now in India 8th century CE-1975
Sikkim (/ˈsɪkᵻm/) is a landlocked state of India, the last to give up its monarchy and fully integrate into India, in 1975. Located in the Himalayan mountains, the state is bordered by Nepal to the west, China’s Tibet Autonomous Region to the north and east, and Bhutan to the east. The Indian state of West Bengal lies to the south.
3. Ottoman Empire, 1299-1922
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey, or simply Turkey, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, according to the Ottoman tradition said to have been descended from the Kayı tribe. After conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to the caliphate. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
4. United Arab Republic, 1958-1971
The United Arab Republic (UAR; Arabic: الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah) was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria. The union began in 1958 and existed until 1961, when Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup d’état. Egypt continued to be known officially as the “United Arab Republic” until 1971. The presidentwas Gamal Abdel Nasser. It was a member of the United Arab States, a loose confederation with North Yemen which in 1961 dissolved along with the Republic.
5. South Vietnam, 1955-1975
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the “State of Vietnam” (1949–55), and later as the “Republic of Vietnam” (1955–75). Its capital was Saigon. The term “South Vietnam” became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.
6. Tibet, 1913-1951
Tibet (i/tɪˈbɛt/; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: bod, Tibetan Pinyin: boew, pronounced [pøː˩˧˨]; Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng /ɕi⁵⁵ t͡sɑŋ⁵¹/) is a region on the Tibetan Plateau in Asia. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Qiang, and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft). The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth’s highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.
7. Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918
Austria-Hungary (German: Österreich-Ungarn; Hungarian: Ausztria-Magyarország; Czech: Rakousko-Uhersko; Croatian:Austro-Ugarska), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the kingdoms and lands represented in the Imperial Council, orCisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavoniaunder the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Nagodba) in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two components of the union. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
8. Yugoslavia, 1918-1992
Yugoslavia (Bosnian, Croatian, Slovene: Jugoslavija; Serbian, Macedonian: Југославија) was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia. The Serbian royalHouse of Karađorđević became the Yugoslav royal dynasty. Yugoslavia gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris.The country was named after the South Slavic peoples and constituted their first union, following centuries in which the territories had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
9. Czechoslovakia, 1918-1992
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia /ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə, –kə–, –slə–, –ˈvɑː–/ (Czech and Slovak: Československo,Česko-Slovensko) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
10. East Germany, 1949-1990
East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʀaːtɪʃə ʀepuˈbliːk] or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany that was occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II . the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces, however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.