• aspect_ratio Gulzarilal Nanda - Acting Prime minister of India [First Prime minister Behalf]expand_more

    Gulzarilal Nanda (4 July 1898 – 15 January 1998) was an Indian politician and economist who specialized in labor issues. He was the Prime Minister of India for two short periods following the deaths of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964 and Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966. Both his terms ended after the ruling Indian National Congress's parliamentary party elected a new prime minister. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in 1997.

    Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulzarilal_Nanda
  • Category: history - Timeline: 1964-05-27T12:00:00Z
  • aspect_ratio India become Independenceexpand_more

    India becomes Independent on 1947 after 300+ years of East India Company rule (British Raj).

    The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and thus modern Pakistan and India came into being on 15 August.

    The legislature representatives of the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League, and the Sikh community came to an agreement with Lord Mountbatten on what has come to be known as the 3 June Plan or Mountbatten Plan. This plan was the last plan for independence.

    Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Independence_Act_1947
  • Category: history - Timeline: 1947-08-15T12:00:00Z
  • aspect_ratio First Prime minister of Indiaexpand_more

    Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.

    He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964.

    He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was also known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru (Hindi, lit., "Uncle Nehru").

    Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jawaharlal_Nehru
  • Category: history - Timeline: 1947-08-15T12:00:00Z
  • aspect_ratio Mahajanapadas - "Second urbanisation" (c. 600 – c. 200 BCE)expand_more

    The period from c. 600 BCE to c. 300 BCE witnessed the rise of the Mahajanapadas, sixteen powerful and vast kingdoms and oligarchic republics. These Mahajanapadas evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region. Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilisation.

    Early "republics" or Gana sangha, such as Shakyas, Koliyas, Mallas, and Licchavis had republican governments. Gana sanghas, such as Mallas, centered in the city of Kusinagara, and the Vajjian Confederacy (Vajji), centered in the city of Vaishali, existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. The most famous clan amongst the ruling confederate clans of the Vajji Mahajanapada were the Licchavis.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-16T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio "Second urbanisation" (c. 600 – c. 200 BCE)expand_more

    During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Sramana movement formed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period, the first Upanishads were written. After 500 BCE, the so-called "Second urbanisation" started, with new urban settlements arising at the Ganges plain, especially the Central Ganges plain.

    The foundations for the Second Urbanisation were laid prior to 600 BCE, in the Painted Grey Ware culture of the Ghaggar-Hakra and Upper Ganges Plain; although most PGW sites were small farming villages, "several dozen" PGW sites eventually emerged as relatively large settlements that can be characterized as towns, the largest of which were fortified by ditches or moats and embankments made of piled earth with wooden palisades, albeit smaller and simpler than the elaborately fortified large cities which grew after 600 BCE in the Northern Black Polished Ware culture.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#%22Second_urbanisation%22_(c._600_%E2%80%93_c._200_BCE)

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-15T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Sanskrit Epics - Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE)expand_more

    In addition to the Vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.

    The Mahabharata remains, today, the longest single poem in the world.

    Historians formerly postulated an "epic age" as the milieu of these two epic poems, but now recognise that the texts (which are both familiar with each other) went through multiple stages of development over centuries. For instance, the Mahabharata may have been based on a small-scale conflict (possibly about 1000 BCE) which was eventually "transformed into a gigantic epic war by bards and poets". There is no conclusive proof from archaeology as to whether the specific events of the Mahabharata have any historical basis.

    Some even attempted to date the events using methods of archaeo-astronomy which have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimated dates ranging up to mid 2nd millennium BCE.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#Sanskrit_Epics

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-14T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Janapadas - Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE) Indiaexpand_more

    The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE is defined by the rise of Janapadas, which are realms, republics and kingdoms — notably the Iron Age Kingdoms of Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.

    During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India); reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janapada

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-13T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Sanskritisation - Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE)expand_more

    Since Vedic times, "people from many strata of society throughout the Indian subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms", a process sometimes called Sanskritisation. It is reflected in the tendency to identify local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskritisation

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-12T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Vedic society - Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE)expand_more

    Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the Indian subcontinent from the north-west. The peepal tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda. Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later, like dharma, trace their roots to Vedic antecedents.

    Early Vedic society is described in the Rigveda, the oldest Vedic text, believed to have been compiled during 2nd millennium BCE, in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. At this time, Aryan society consisted of largely tribal and pastoral groups, distinct from the Harappan urbanisation which had been abandoned. The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts.

    At the end of the Rigvedic period, the Aryan society began to expand from the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, into the western Ganges plain. It became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the hierarchy of the four varnas, or social classes. This social structure was characterised both by syncretising with the native cultures of northern India, but also eventually by the excluding of some indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure. During this period, many of the previous small tribal units and chiefdoms began to coalesce into Janapadas (monarchical, state-level polities).

    In the 14th century BCE, the Battle of the Ten Kings, between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the Northwest India, guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes—leading to the emergence of the Kuru Kingdom, first state level society during the Vedic period.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#Vedic_society

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-11T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Dravidian origins - "First urbanisation" (c. 3300 – c. 1500 BCE)expand_more

    Linguists hypothesized that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout the Indian subcontinent before a series of Indo-Aryan migrations.

    In this view, the early Indus Valley civilisation is often identified as having been Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola, and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family".

    Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script. The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification. While, Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption.

    While some scholars like J. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed. The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#Dravidian_origins

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-10T12:00:00Z
  • aspect_ratio Hinduism - The community and not Religionexpand_more

    Hinduism is the world’s oldest community, according to many scholars, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years. Today, with about 900 million followers, Hinduism is the 3rd largest religion behind Christianity & Islam. Roughly 95 percent of the world’s Hindus live in India. Hinduism is unique in that it’s not a single religion but a compilation of many traditions and philosophies.

    Most scholars believe Hinduism formally started somewhere between 2300 B.C. and 1500 B.C. in the Indus Valley, near modern-day Pakistan.

    • Hinduism embraces many religious ideas. For this reason, it’s sometimes referred to as a “way of life” or a “family of religions,” as opposed to a single, organized religion.
    • Hindus believe in the doctrines of samsara (the continuous cycle of life, death, and reincarnation) and karma (the universal law of cause and effect).
    • One of the key thoughts of Hinduism is “atman,” or the belief in a soul. This philosophy holds that living creatures have a soul, and they’re all part of the supreme soul. The goal is to achieve “moksha,” or salvation, which ends the cycle of rebirths to become part of the absolute soul.
    • One fundamental principle of religion is the idea that people’s actions and thoughts directly determine their current life and future lives.
    • Hindus strive to achieve dharma, which is a code of living that emphasizes good conduct and morality.
    • The Om and Swastika are symbols of Hinduism. The Swastika, which represents good luck, and opposite of Swastika is associated with evil and Germany’s Nazi Party made opposite swastika their symbol in 1920.
    • Hindu loves, respects, and worship all living creatures and consider the cow a sacred animal.
    • Food is an important part of life for Hindus. Most don’t eat beef or pork, and many are vegetarians.
    • Hinduism is closely related to other Indian religions, including Buddhism, Sikhism, & Jainism.

    Read more: https://www.history.com/topics/religion/hinduism
  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-10T01:10:10Z
  • aspect_ratio Prehistoric era (until c. 3300 BCE)expand_more

    Archaeological evidence of anatomically modern humans in the Indian subcontinent is claimed to be as old as 78,000–74,000 years. Earlier hominids include Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era, somewhere between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago. Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements and some of its major civilisations.

    The earliest archaeological site in the Indian subcontinent is the Palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal. The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period, when more extensive settlement of the Indian subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 years ago. The first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. The Edakkal Caves are pictorial writings believed to date to at least 6,000 BCE, from the Neolithic man, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in Kerala. The Stone Age carvings of Edakkal are rare and are the only known examples from South India.

    Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India, radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. Neolithic agricultural cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE, in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE, represented by the Bhirrana findings (7570–6200 BCE) in Haryana, India, Lahuradewa findings (7000 BCE) in Uttar Pradesh, India, and Mehrgarh findings (7000–5000 BCE) in Balochistan, Pakistan; and later in Southern India, spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. The first urban civilisation of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilisation.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#Prehistoric_era_(until_c._3300_BCE)

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-10T01:05:05Z
  • aspect_ratio Indus Valley Civilisation - "First urbanisation" (c. 3300 – c. 1500 BCE)expand_more

    The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early cradles of civilisation of the Old World. Of the three, the Indus Valley Civilisation was the most expansive. At its peak, the Indus Civilisation may have had a population of over five million inhabitants.

    The civilisation was primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states) and Pakistan (Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces), while some sites in Afghanistan are believed to be trading colonies. A total of 1,022 cities and settlements had been found by 2008, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers, and their tributaries; of which 616 sites are in India and 416 sites are in Pakistan; of these 96 have been excavated.

    Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The civilisation is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses and is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation.

    During the late period of this civilisation, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived, especially in the smaller villages and isolated farms. According to historian Upinder Singh "the general picture presented by the late Harappan phase is one of a breakdown of urban networks and an expansion of rural ones". The Indian Copper Hoard Culture is attributed to this time, associated in the Doab region with the Ochre Coloured Pottery.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#%22First_urbanisation%22_(c._3300_%E2%80%93_c._1500_BCE)

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-10T01:00:00Z
  • aspect_ratio Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE)expand_more

    The Vedic period is named after the Indo-Aryan culture of north-west India, although other parts of India had a distinct cultural identity during this period. The Vedic culture is described in the texts of Vedas, still sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India. The Vedic period, lasting from about 1500 to 500 BCE, contributed the foundations of several cultural aspects of the Indian subcontinent. In terms of culture, many regions of the Indian subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period.

    Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India#Vedic_period_(c._1500_%E2%80%93_c._600_BCE)

  • Category: history - Timeline: 1000-01-09T01:00:00Z